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As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.
Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, and many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century.
The Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train and Lokaltog (private railway) and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs.
To relieve traffic congestion, which is partly the result of increased traffic because of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned because the narrow 10 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt (Køge Bay) forms a traffic bottleneck.